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TermDefinition
endive One of three types of plants: Belgian endive, which is grown without light to produce white leaves, curly endive with curled, lacy leaves, and escarole. Escarole is the mildest, the other varieties being bitter.
enoki A delicate, fruity tasting mushroom with long, thin stems and tiny white caps. High in vitamin D.
escarole A type of endive. Milder than Belgian endive.
essence An oily, concentrated extract from foods, used to flavor certain dishes.
etouffee A popular Cajun dish which is a thick spicy stew of crayfish and vegetables served over white rice.
evaporated milk Canned milk with about 60% of the water removed. It can be used as a substitute for cream, or mixed with water to substitute for milk. The flavor is somewhat sweeter than either cream or milk, however.
extracts Flavorings from various foods, concentrated through evaporation or distillation. Due to their intense flavor, they are added in very small quantities to dishes.
fagioli The Italian word for beans, generally meaning white beans.
Fahrenheit A temperature scale where 32 degrees is the freezing point of water, and 212 degrees is the boiling point. C=(F-32)*5/9.
fajitas A Mexican dish of marinated meat fried with onions and peppers, cut into strips, and served with tortillas.
farfel Grated egg noodle dough used in soups. Can refer simply to food that has broken into small pieces.
Farmers Cheese Another name for cottage cheese, pot cheese, clabber cheese,or Schmierkaese. These are considered unripened soft cheeses made pasteurized milk and kept at temperatures between 70 and 100 degrees until the milk is clabbered and separates into curds and whey. For detailed instructions on making these cheeses you may consult versions of Irma Rombauer's Joy of Cooking through at least 1964.
fava bean A bean the looks like a large lima bean, popular in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cooking. They have a tough skin that can be removed by blanching.
fennel A plant that has fine foliage and celery-like stalks and a large base. The plant has a light, anise like flavor.
fenugreek Fenugreek is a plant native to western Asia. The young leaves are used as an herb and the rock-hard seed pods are ground and used as a spice. It is an important ingredient in curries.
fermentation A chemical change in foods, such as wine, cheese, and yogurt. The change is caused by bacteria or yeasts which produce the enzymes that cause the fermentation process.
fettuccini Wide (about 3/8 inch), flat pasta noodes.
fiber The portion of plant foods that cannot be digested.
fig A fruit originating in Africa, Asia, and southern Europe, now cultivated world wide. Many varieties. High in iron, calcium, and phosphorus.
file powder A standard seasoning of Creole cooking. Made from ground, dried sassafras leaves.
fines herbes A French mixture of finely chopped herbs, traditionally chervil, chives, parsley, and tarragon.
fino A Spanish sherry, considered to be one of the world's best. Unlike some sherries, fino should not be aged.
firm ball stage A stage of candy cooking of 244 to 248 degrees F. At this temperature, a drop of syrup into cold water will form a firm ball.
fish sauce An Asian liquid made from fermented, salted fish. Used in many Asian cuisines.
flambe A dramatic step in cooking where liquor is added to food, warmed, then ignited.
Flours All purpose flour is a blend of high- and low-gluten wheat flours, and is used for general purpose baking. Bread flour is primarily made from high-gluten hard wheat flour. Cake flour is a finely textured, low gluten soft wheat flour. Flours come in bleached and unbleached varieties. Generally these are interchangable, but bread bakers usually prefer unbleached.
flute To create decorative patterns in foods, such as pie crust edges, mushroom caps, etc.
focaccia Italian - a flat round bread brushed with olive oil and sprinkled with salt, then topped with other herbs as the cook desires, then baked.
fold (to) to gently mix ingredients with a down,under,up,and over motion so as not to eliminate the air that has been incorporated into beaten eggwhites or whipped cream, for example..
garbanzo beans Also called chickpeas, these large peas are common in Mediterranean, Indian, and Middle Eastern dishes.

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