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TermDefinition
fenugreek Fenugreek is a plant native to western Asia. The young leaves are used as an herb and the rock-hard seed pods are ground and used as a spice. It is an important ingredient in curries.
fermentation A chemical change in foods, such as wine, cheese, and yogurt. The change is caused by bacteria or yeasts which produce the enzymes that cause the fermentation process.
fettuccini Wide (about 3/8 inch), flat pasta noodes.
fiber The portion of plant foods that cannot be digested.
fig A fruit originating in Africa, Asia, and southern Europe, now cultivated world wide. Many varieties. High in iron, calcium, and phosphorus.
file powder A standard seasoning of Creole cooking. Made from ground, dried sassafras leaves.
fines herbes A French mixture of finely chopped herbs, traditionally chervil, chives, parsley, and tarragon.
fino A Spanish sherry, considered to be one of the world's best. Unlike some sherries, fino should not be aged.
firm ball stage A stage of candy cooking of 244 to 248 degrees F. At this temperature, a drop of syrup into cold water will form a firm ball.
fish sauce An Asian liquid made from fermented, salted fish. Used in many Asian cuisines.
flambe A dramatic step in cooking where liquor is added to food, warmed, then ignited.
Flours All purpose flour is a blend of high- and low-gluten wheat flours, and is used for general purpose baking. Bread flour is primarily made from high-gluten hard wheat flour. Cake flour is a finely textured, low gluten soft wheat flour. Flours come in bleached and unbleached varieties. Generally these are interchangable, but bread bakers usually prefer unbleached.
flute To create decorative patterns in foods, such as pie crust edges, mushroom caps, etc.
focaccia Italian - a flat round bread brushed with olive oil and sprinkled with salt, then topped with other herbs as the cook desires, then baked.
fold (to) to gently mix ingredients with a down,under,up,and over motion so as not to eliminate the air that has been incorporated into beaten eggwhites or whipped cream, for example..
garbanzo beans Also called chickpeas, these large peas are common in Mediterranean, Indian, and Middle Eastern dishes.
gari Ginger root pickled with sweet vinegar and colored red. Often served with sushi in thin slices. Also known as beni shoga.
ginger The root of the ginger plant is a mainstay in Asian and Indian cuisines, providing a peppery and slightly sweet taste and spicy aroma. Fresh ginger may be found in the produce section and should be peeled and sliced or ground before using. Dried ground ginger (not an appropriate substitute for recipes calling for fresh ginger)has different characteristics and is used in curries, soups and baked goods (i.e. gingerbread and ginger snaps). Ginger can also be found candied, preserved and pickled, each with its own uses.
glucose A type of sugar used in commercial candies and frosting, baked good, soft drinks and other processed foods because it doesn't crystallize easily. also call dextroglucose or dextrose, check in a store that has a large cake decorating section or offers cake decorating classes.
glycerin, glycerine A colorless, odorless,syrupy liquid made from fats and oils and used to retain moisture and add sweetness to foods. It also helps to prevent sugar crystallization in foods like candy.
guinness stout A brand of of strong dark beer which originated in the British Isles. It is made with dark-roasted barley and is more fragrant of hops than other types of beer.
half and half A blend of light cream and milk, which produces a cream with about 12% milk fat.
hanger steak Beef muscle over the 7th and 8th ribs; similar to flank or skirt steak in texture and rib-eye in flavor. This muscle is little used by the animal and full of blood giving the cooked meat a reddish appearance.
hardtack A large, hard biscuit made with unsalted, unleavened,flour and water dough. It is baked and dried to give it a longer shelf life and has been used as a staple by sailors at least since the 1800's. It is also known as ship biscuit and sea bread.
haricot vert Haricot vert is a fancy name for green beans or string beans.
heavy cream see cream
horseradish sauce A condiment used with fish or meat. Available at most supermarkets.
hummus A Middle Eastern sauce or spread made from mashed cooked chickpeas or garbanzo beans and seasoned with lemon juice, garlic and oil. It is often served with pita bread for dipping.
Jane's Krazy Mixed-Up Salt Jane's Krazy Mixed-up Seasonings including Original Mixed-Up Salt. Distributed by Flavor Delite, Inc. in Richburg, SC. Phone 1-800-257-6174 EX 225. It is primarily a coarse ground salt most noticably flavored with onion and garlic powders but also contains some anonymous spices. Found with the other spices and herbs in our local Safeway supermarket right between the Lawry's seasonings and the Shilling-McCormick stuff. $3.49 for 9.5 oz.
kale A member of the cabbage family closely related to collard greens. Both crinkly and smooth leaved varieties are winter vegetables and a good source of vitamin A. Kale is best steamed or boiled and served with butter.

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